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  1. Introduction of Female Suffrage
  2. Tokuju (Special Order) Boom and Female Workers
  3. Increase of Female Employees
  4. Popularity of American Style Fashion and Western Dressmaking
  5. Part-time Female Workers
  6. Women and Agriculture
  7. Ama (Female Diver)
  8. Marriage Retirement and Retirement Ages for Men and Women
  9. Office Ladies (OL)
  10. Dual Tracks in Female Occupations: Ippan Shoku (Non-Career Track) and Sōgō Shoku (Career Track)
  11. Laws Regarding Working Women
  12. Sexual Harassment
  13. Low Birth Rate and Working Women
  14. Separate Surnames for Married Couples
  15. Female dominant occupations
  16. “Mighty” Women: Police and the Military Self Defense Force
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Women in office doing paperwork
Women working in a Japanese office.
Photo from Mainich Shimbun.
Laws Regarding Working Women
The Equal Employment Opportunity Law for Men and Women, which took effect in 1986, calls for equal opportunity for men and women in employment. It prohibits companies from dismissing women for taking maternity leave. Initially, companies were required to make efforts to realize gender equality in employment. However, later revisions prohibited gender discrimination in employment, placement and promotion, and required employers to consider ways to prevent sexual harassment. In 1992, the Childcare Leave Law took effect and many women began to take childcare leave. Although both father and mother are permitted to take childcare leave by law, in reality, many companies permit childcare leave only to women. In 1999, the Basic Law for Gender-Equal Society was passed. This Law asserts that the realization of a society in which “men and women respect the other's human rights and share their responsibilities, and every citizen is able to fully exercise their individuality and abilities regardless of gender” is “a top-priority task.” Click DOCUMENT to see the preamble of the Basic Law for Gender-Equal Society.
Special Terms: Childcare Leave Law  |  Childcare Leave  |  Equal Employment Opportunity Law for Men and Women

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