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  1. 集団就職
  2. 就職シーズン
  3. 新卒採用の仕組み
  4. 高卒採用の仕組み
  5. 日本の雇用制度
  6. 終身雇用
  7. 年功序列制度
  8. 賞与(ボーナス)制度
  9. 企業別組合
  10. 企業別組合の労使協調
  11. 失業保険
  12. 二分化された女性職:一般職と総合職
  13. 女性雇用者の増加
  14. 女性の多い職種
  15. 退職後の職位と社会保障
  16. 結婚退職・男女別定年
  17. 大企業と中小企業の関係
  18. パートタイムで働く女性たち
  19. 産業部門でみる日本の労働人口
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1950s photo of women looking at washing machines in store
Electric products have greatly reduced the burden of housekeeping. 1956.
Photo from Mainichi Shimbun.
Part-time Female Workers
Japan’s family life changed greatly during the high economic growth period. The year 1953, when the electric refrigerator, electric washing machine, and electric vacuum cleaner hit the market, was called the first year of the Electric Era. Later, washing machines, refrigerators and television sets were called the “Three Sacred Treasures,” and spread rapidly among Japanese households. The diffusion of electric appliances lifted some of the burden of housework from the shoulders of housewives. With a labor shortage due to economic growth, women who had passed the peak years of childrearing began entering the labor force as part-time workers. Currently, part-time labor is one of the major forms of employment for Japanese women. While only 12% of male workers are part-time workers, 46% of female workers are part-time workers, which means nearly half of working women in Japan are part-timers. In addition to the difficulty that married women with children have finding a fulltime job, the Japanese tax system rewards married women whose income remains below a certain level by treating them as dependents of their husband and keeping the family in a lower tax bracket. These factors contribute to the decision of many women to work part-time. Click CHART to see the age distribution of male and female part-time workers in Japan.
言葉の説明:  "Three Sacred Treasures"  |  labor shortage

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