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  1. 集団就職
  2. 就職シーズン
  3. 新卒採用の仕組み
  4. 高卒採用の仕組み
  5. 日本の雇用制度
  6. 終身雇用
  7. 年功序列制度
  8. 賞与(ボーナス)制度
  9. 企業別組合
  10. 企業別組合の労使協調
  11. 失業保険
  12. 二分化された女性職:一般職と総合職
  13. 女性雇用者の増加
  14. 女性の多い職種
  15. 退職後の職位と社会保障
  16. 結婚退職・男女別定年
  17. 大企業と中小企業の関係
  18. パートタイムで働く女性たち
  19. 産業部門でみる日本の労働人口
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A man stands above bundles of cash while four women fan the cash they have received.
Japanese office workers with a pile of cash to be used for Bonus payments.
Photo from Mainich Shimbun.
The Bonus System
The bonus system applies to a broad range of workers, but not to all. Regular employees earn a monthly wage, which is usually paid as a fixed salary. It is based on their general classification and years of service. The monthly wage is intended to cover living expenses. In addition, employees receive substantial bonuses twice a year, in June and December. Each bonus is normally equal to one to three months’ salary. Although the term “bonus” suggests a special reward for good work, the semi-annual bonus has become an entitlement and an integral part of the wage system. It is also a form of profit-sharing for companies. The size of the bonus depends on the company’s profitability, and is subject to collective bargaining by the company’s union. However, even some companies facing bankruptcy continue to pay reduced semi-annual bonuses. Since employers and employees consider the bonus to be a part of the wage package, it acts as a form of forced savings which the company withholds from the monthly salary. Japanese workers know that twice a year they will receive a bonus payment, which they can use for major purchases and for savings. Because it is both predictable and substantial, the bonus system encourages saving and rational planning of expenditures.
言葉の説明:  living expenses

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