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  1. 集団就職
  2. 就職シーズン
  3. 新卒採用の仕組み
  4. 高卒採用の仕組み
  5. 日本の雇用制度
  6. 終身雇用
  7. 年功序列制度
  8. 賞与(ボーナス)制度
  9. 企業別組合
  10. 企業別組合の労使協調
  11. 失業保険
  12. 二分化された女性職:一般職と総合職
  13. 女性雇用者の増加
  14. 女性の多い職種
  15. 退職後の職位と社会保障
  16. 結婚退職・男女別定年
  17. 大企業と中小企業の関係
  18. パートタイムで働く女性たち
  19. 産業部門でみる日本の労働人口
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University students in suits form two long lines to get information about work
University students line up to receive information at a company briefing.
Photo from Mainichi Shimbun.
Hiring New Graduates
With their strong tradition of lifetime employment, large Japanese companies rarely fire regular employees. Therefore, hiring new graduates has been an important practice for these companies. Usually Japanese college students have already decided where they will work long before graduation. They start seeking jobs over a year before graduation; participate in job seminars held by companies and visit alumni from the same college who work at the company they are targeting. These former students are considered their “senpai” or seniors. On the other side, companies assign employees who have recently graduated from college as recruiters and have them invite talented students from their own college, their “kohai,” to apply. These early hiring activities are called “aota gai” (buying a green rice paddy). To prevent early hiring from getting out of hand, in 1952 the government introduced the Employment Agreement which sets the starting dates for visiting companies, selecting candidates, and offering positions. However, many companies secretly started the hiring process earlier. It was not unusual for a company to make an informal job offer earlier than the specified job offer date. With the changing economy and globalization the Employment Agreement was abolished in1997. Recently, following Western companies, some Japanese companies have introduced the internship system to diversify Japanese hiring practices.
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