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  1. Introduction of Female Suffrage
  2. Tokuju (Special Order) Boom and Female Workers
  3. Increase of Female Employees
  4. Popularity of American Style Fashion and Western Dressmaking
  5. Part-time Female Workers
  6. Women and Agriculture
  7. Ama (Female Diver)
  8. Marriage Retirement and Retirement Ages for Men and Women
  9. Office Ladies (OL)
  10. Dual Tracks in Female Occupations: Ippan Shoku (Non-Career Track) and Sōgō Shoku (Career Track)
  11. Laws Regarding Working Women
  12. Sexual Harassment
  13. Low Birth Rate and Working Women
  14. Separate Surnames for Married Couples
  15. Female dominant occupations
  16. “Mighty” Women: Police and the Military Self Defense Force
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Woman farmer under a kiwi tree, holding a kiwi
A female farm owner checks a kiwi fruit.
Photo Courtesy of Ito Agricultural Extension Center.
Women and Agriculture
In Japan, where small family farms have been dominant, women have traditionally been major participants in agriculture. As the number of farmfamilies whose members worked in other jobs increased, women took on more of the burden of family farming. As the term “san-chan nōgyō” indicates, the operation of farms shifted to a pattern in which the father of the family works at a company, while the grandfather, grandmother and the mother all farm. Women are often reluctant to marry into a farming household because they dislike the heavy farm work, and because of the conservative social relationships in rural areas. For many farming villages, a shortage of brides has become a serious problem.On the other hand, as mechanization has lightened the burden of farm work and as the computer and Internet have spread to rural areas, more and more women are starting new businesses using local agricultural products. Click CHART to see the shift in entrepreneurship among rural women.
Special Terms: farm household  |  sanchan nōgyō, sanchan nogyo, santyan nôgyô, sanchan nougyou

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